Knee Anatomy, Function and Popular Issues. Anatomical Terms

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Knee Anatomy, Function and Popular Issues. Anatomical Terms

Cartilage of this Leg

There are numerous forms of cartilage inside our human body, each with a function that is slightly different. As an example, the medial and meniscus that is lateraldiscussed below) are made of fibrocartilage which can make them strong and rubbery and in a position to include extra stability towards the leg. The end of the femur and tibia and the undersurface of the patella are covered in hyaline cartilage on the other hand, like bones of most joints. Hyaline (also called articular) cartilage is actually versatile and slippery. The flexibleness assists it to behave as being a surprise absorber. Articular cartilage is manufactured a lot more slippery by an oily lubricant made within the joint, called fluid that is synovial. This enables the 2 bones to go efficiently for each other without discomfort. If this cartilage that is articular away, joint motion could become painful and restricted (it is known as joint disease). Regrettably, cartilage has very little circulation and it is really bad at restoring it self.

Medial Meniscus

The meniscus that is medial a crescent shaped framework that exists regarding the within the knee. It really is made from fibrocartilage. It will act as a surprise absorber into the leg and adds security towards the knee joint. It really is connected to the tibia along with into the joint capsule associated with the leg.

Lateral Meniscus

The lateral meniscus sits in the lateral plateau that is tibial. It really is a crescent shaped framework that is additionally composed of fibrocartilage. It will act as a surprise absorber into the knee and adds security towards the knee joint. It really is connected to the capsule that is joint of knee also. Its notably more mobile compared to medial meniscus.

In a wholesome leg, the rubbery menisci behave as surprise absorbers. They both take a seat on the top of tibia which help to spread the strain associated with femur over a bigger area in the tibia. In the event that menisci are eliminated (since they are torn, etc.) the underlying articular cartilage views a heavier load and it is prone to using down faster (for example. growth of osteoarthritis)

Also, together, the menisci produce a superficial socket on the tibia that accommodates the finish for the femur. It will help with leg security.

Muscles Across The Leg

The muscle tissue across the leg help with keeping the knee stable, well aligned, and going. There are two primary main muscle tissues across the knee: the quadriceps plus the hamstrings. The quadriceps are an accumulation of 4 muscle tissue regarding the front side for the thigh and so are in charge of straightening the leg by bringing a curved leg to a straightened position. The hamstrings are a small grouping of 3 muscles from the back associated with the thigh offering the opposing movement by bending the leg from the straightened position.

The band that is iliotibial a broad tendinous expansion associated with the tensor fascia lata and gluteus maximus which also helps stabilize the leg.

Tendons when you look at the Leg

Tendons are elastic tissues consists of collagen. They’ve been the continuations of muscle tissue and permit them in order to connect to bones. You’ll find so many tendons round the leg which also assist to support the leg. These are generally connected with muscle tissue talked about when you look at the part above (see above). Probably the most tendons that are important the quadriceps tendon. This lies in the front side of this leg and links the quadriceps muscles associated with the thigh towards the tibia through the patella and patellar ligament (or tendon). It offers the charged energy essential to straighten the knee.


There are as much as 13 bursa of numerous sizes close to the leg. These fluid filled sacs cushion the joint and lower friction between muscle tissue, bones, tendons and ligaments. There are bursa situated under the tendons and ligaments on both the lateral and medial edges associated with the leg. The bursa that is prepatellar among the bigger bursae regarding the leg and it is situated on the front side associated with patella (thus pre-patellar) just below your skin. It protects the patella. Often, whether as a result of trauma that is direct also disease, it could become irritated, bloated, and painful. This is certainly referred to as prepatellar bursitis.

The pes bursa is yet another essential bursa that overlies some associated with the hamstring tendons which put on the medial part regarding the tibia. It too will often be irritated, causing pes bursitis, which may be painful.


Plicae are folds within the synovium in the leg joint itself. Plicae rarely result dilemmas but often will get caught involving the and hurt.

Knee Arteries and Veins

The most thing that is important realize about the circulation to your knee is it’s very numerous. there are lots of security vessels (fundamentally additional vessels) that provide blood circulation towards the structures regarding the knee.

Knee arteries and veins

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